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4-level Drop-down Menu Creation and Make it Responsive

Creating a 4-level drop-down menu that is fully responsive involves structuring your HTML5 to define the menu levels, using CSS for styling, and leveraging JavaScript to ensure responsiveness. We crafted this guide for beginners, detailing each step in a clear, step-by-step manner.

Step 1: HTML5 Structure For 4-level Drop-down Menu

Let’s begin by structuring the dropdown menu using HTML5. We’ll use nested unordered lists (<ul>) to create the multi-level menu.

<nav>
    <ul class="dropdown">
        <li><a href="#">Menu 1</a>
            <ul class="submenu">
                <li><a href="#">Submenu 1-1</a>
                    <ul class="submenu">
                        <li><a href="#">Submenu 1-1-1</a>
                            <ul class="submenu">
                                <li><a href="#">Submenu 1-1-1-1</a></li>
                                <li><a href="#">Submenu 1-1-1-2</a></li>
                                <!-- More items -->
                            </ul>
                        </li>
                        <li><a href="#">Submenu 1-1-2</a></li>
                        <!-- More items -->
                    </ul>
                </li>
                <li><a href="#">Submenu 1-2</a></li>
                <!-- More items -->
            </ul>
        </li>
        <!-- Repeat for more main menu items -->
    </ul>
</nav>

Step 2: CSS Styling

Now, style the dropdown menu to make it visually appealing and hide the submenus initially.

/* Base style for the dropdown */
.dropdown, .submenu {
    list-style: none;
    padding: 0;
    margin: 0;
}
.dropdown li {
    position: relative;
}
.dropdown a {
    display: block;
    text-decoration: none;
    padding: 10px;
    color: #333;
    background-color: #f9f9f9;
}
/* Style for nested submenus */
.submenu {
    display: none;
    position: absolute;
    top: 100%;
    left: 0;
}
.submenu li {
    min-width: 150px;
}
/* Display submenu on hover */
.dropdown li:hover > .submenu {
    display: block;
}
/* Positioning for nested submenus */
.dropdown .submenu .submenu {
    top: 0;
    left: 100%;
}

Step 3: Responsive Design with JavaScript

We use JavaScript to handle the dropdown’s display on smaller screens. We’ll create a toggle button that displays the menu on mobile devices.

<button id="menuToggle">Menu</button>

Now, add JavaScript to handle the click event for responsiveness:

document.getElementById('menuToggle').addEventListener('click', function() {
    var dropdown = document.querySelector('.dropdown');
    dropdown.style.display = dropdown.style.display === 'block' ? 'none' : 'block';
});

Step 4: Media Queries for Responsiveness

Use CSS media queries to adjust the display for different screen sizes, ensuring the menu is responsive.

#menuToggle {
    display: none;
    padding: 10px;
    background-color: #333;
    color: white;
    border: none;
}
@media screen and (max-width: 768px) {
    /* Mobile-specific styles */
    .dropdown {
        display: none;
    }
    .dropdown li {
        display: block;
    }
    .submenu {
        position: static;
    }
    #menuToggle {
        display: block;
    }
}

How It Works

  1. HTML Structure: The menu follows a nested list structure, with each submenu nested within its corresponding parent menu item.
  2. CSS Styling: We style the menu to be visually pleasing. By default, the submenus remain hidden and only appear when hovering over the parent menu item.
  3. Responsive Design: On smaller screens, the menu is hidden and a toggle button is displayed. When the button is clicked, the JavaScript toggles the display of the main menu.
  4. Media Queries: The CSS media queries ensure that the layout and display properties of the menu adjust according to the screen size.

This unique setup creates a multi-level drop-down menu that is functional and responsive across various devices. This is a basic setup to make a responsive website for end users. As you grow more comfortable, you can expand upon this with more advanced features like animations, accessibility improvements, and more sophisticated styling.

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